Saturday, July 31, 2010

I-Team: Was the Needles UFO a Secret Military Craft

NEEDLES, Ca. -- It's a UFO, in the literal sense -- it's still unidentified. Half a dozen witnesses say they saw something in the sky over Needles and Bullhead City or watched it being carried away by a phalanx of military helicopters. Was it a spy plane or a drone or something more exotic?
Several eyewitnesses say the mystery object blazed out of the sky in the early hours of May 14, 2008. The long cylinder with the turquoise glow was seen over Bullhead City by former cop Frank Costigan and others. It seemed, at one point, to slow down in its descent.
South of Needles, a fisherman in a houseboat saw the light pass over and slam into the riverbank 50 or so yards west of the Colorado River. Minutes later, at least four military type helicopters appeared in the area and a giant sky crane was used to haul the object into the air and away toward the north.
The fisherman, who uses the nickname Bob on the River, said what he saw. "It didn't look like a meteor. I've seen meteors before. It looked like a plane crashing."
In the two years since the story broke, a lot of people have traveled to the rough terrain of the tri-state area to search for the point of impact -- UFO enthusiasts, TV producers, aviation buffs -- but the shifting sand and thick salt cedar defied efforts to identify a crash site. 
The I-Team traveled with Houseboat Bob to whittle down the search area, though we still did not locate the spot. But Bob kept looking. 
He traded in the houseboat for an RV and now lives in the desert, not on the river, but he never stopped searching, driven by one thing.
"Everybody thinks I'm an idiot. Everybody thinks I'm looney tooney in the cabooney," he said.
His weekly one-man safaris into the riverbank region came up with something no one else noticed, not even those who searched by air. A large, flat clearing where someone used heavy equipment to remove the gnarly brush, about 70 yards west of the river at almost the exact spot where Bob says the object landed. 
It's an unusual spot, he says. "You would not see another hardened ground clearing like this anywhere between here and Needles. It's all sugar sand everywhere."
Ex-cop Frank Costigan is one of those who searched for the crash site. He's also amazed to find the clearing, but says area residents encountered members of what was described as a clean up team in the weeks after the crash.
"There was a cleanup crew dining at the Topock Marina on occasion, after that thing had been removed and we were hunting for the spot," he said.
But if this is the spot, we still don't know what hit the ground. Retired intelligence Colonel John Alexander speculates it could be any number of high tech UAV's -- unmanned spy planes being developed at several western test ranges, including Area 51 in Nevada, or Edwards in California.
"It's also the possibility it lost control and flew off the range. It's not that far from Edwards or the test ranges," he said.
Last month, a classified object was launched into space by the Air Force. The Pentagon has confirmed it's the X-37B space plane, an unmanned spy plane, sort of the military's version of the space shuttle. A few images of the X-37 have been made public, along with video of a sister vehicle the X-40. 
The military acknowledges these crafts have been test flown at Edwards and Vandenberg, not too far from Needles. The shape and the size are a near perfect match for what the witnesses saw.
Bob confirms it looks like the object he saw. "Without the horizontal surfaces, yes. Without the wings," he said.
Houseboat Bob said even though the glow from the object was blue green, the object appeared to be black and shiny as it was being airlifted away. Photos of the X-37 show black, shiny tiles on the exterior.
The I-Team sent records requests to numerous agencies and none were able to shed light on what the Needles object might have been. The Air Force won't say much about the mission of the X-37, but military analysts have some guesses.
"What they say they will use it for testing space technologies, and certainly having a re-usable vehicle would be a way of sending up prototypes, batteries, cooling systems, electronics, testing them then bringing them back down so you can modify them. Possibly, it's a space maneuver vehicle so it can duck back in the atmosphere and change its orbit so next time it flew over China, the Chinese wouldn't expect it coming," said military watchdog John Pike.
Another military analyst who spoke on the condition of anonymity says he thinks it could be part of a weapons program known as the Rods from the Gods, which we know has been tested out at Area 51. These are spaced-based kinetic weapons that literally fall out of the sky and cause problems for the bad guys. 
But for now, the best guess of the witnesses is the X-37.
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The Power Of Symbolic Language And UFOs

By Ted Twietmeyer


I'll first caution you that some of this article may appear to be somewhat abstract in nature. We'll first lay a foundation with known technology, and then show what may become our future of technology.
Language - can it be defined? We tend to think of it as only a means for communication between humans. By most definitions of language, any given language must have a fixed alphabet or character set.
For programming computers numerous languages exist. These are not languages that hardware can directly use in most cases. Computer languages function to build a bridge between the hardware realm and human thought. (Most computer software engineers know little or nothing about the microchips on which their software creations run.) These languages are then compiled into machine code which the computer can understand. In the early days, it was first done using giant patch-cord plug boards that "programmed" a simply computer to do simple computations. Later magnetic and paper tape was used, to be followed by disk drives. But I digress a bit here - because computer languages are not our main subject.
Then there are thousands of spoken and written languages. In almost all cases a fixed alphabet is used. In Chinese, Korean and Japanese each language has more than 1,000 fixed symbols for every object and physical action that existed in the ancient world. These symbols were rigidly defined for each language.
For example, back in the late 1980s I looked at a datasheet for a first generation gate array microchip. The datasheet for the chip they wanted to use was to me from Japan faxed (pre-internet days) and consisted of both Japanese and English symbols. For example, nanoseconds did not have a symbol in Japanese, and the standard abbreviation used in the west for nanoseconds is "ns." This appeared on the datasheet.
A typical circuit board found in all electronic products today [1]
The circuit board example shown above is the result of hundreds of hours of electrical engineering work. This circuit board can only be designed and fabricated after all the electronic circuit design is completed. The silver dots (solder) you see which connect copper conductors (shown as light green lines above) to other components and conductors on the other side of the board, or to similar conductors INSIDE the board.
It might not seem to make sense now, but keep this image in mind as later we will be using this example which is why it is shown here.
Now we will surpass known technology and plunge into the unknown. None of this is currently being taught by any of our institutions of higher learning.
We will leave the comfort of a known 26 letter alphabet world and enter a different one. Suppose that there wasn't any limit to an alphabet for a given language? Imagine a language where you could create an infinite number of characters at will!
For now, let's assume we could design a circuit without discrete components and without soldering. It would require totally new materials technology and an entire new methodology of thinking about solving design problems. Without doubt, this would require us to use ALL of our brain - instead of just 10%.
There are numerous accounts of "strange materials" which UFOs appear to be constructed of. Are these nano-materials, living materials or something else that can partially exist in our dimension and another one? It may or may not be possible to replicate these materials with raw materials found on Earth.
UFOs often have writing on them. But is it writing or something else? When we look at a printed letters on a paper, no thought is given as to what the ink composition is. When we see what appears to be "letters" on a UFO object, we AUTOMATICALLY think these are letters, too. If we look at this from a scientific viewpoint, we cannot assume anything to be fact until it's proven. Theories must come first, and then be supported by experimental proof. With UFOs there is by design a serious lack of evidence. Yet there is no lack of witnesses.
Fig. 1 - One of two antigravity generators claimed to be removed from an alien vehicle. Click to zoom [1]
The above object shows unusual symbols on numerous facets. (See reference [1] for full size image.) It is not known for certain if this object is authentic. There are at least three possibilities for releasing this image and the associated text for it:
1.. This is a real object, and the man using the name Isaac is sincere in his reasons for releasing it. Why he is solely using a talk radio show for this is odd.
2.. The image release is being used as a means to USE the public to decode what the symbols mean. This would also mean that those who have possession of the images and information will be carefully watched and under surveillance. If true, this indicates that government experts are stumped. This is similar to the plot of the film "Mercury Rising" where a puzzle was placed in a puzzle book, to see if someone could crack it. In other words, this image is another black op.
3.. This object is a simple CGI hoax that gives someone a thrill to claim it's real.
Text that appears with this object on a website claims that through reverse engineering, it was discovered that these symbols form a circuit pattern which "programs" this object to perform the intended function. It is claimed that even supercomputers in the 1980's had difficulty composing the symbols. The two separate, I-beam like curved parts shown above are supposedly the "controls" for operating the device.
Fig. 2 - Kecksburg acorn-shaped UFO replica. [2]
On the Kecksburg Pennsylvania UFO, symbols were seen around the base of the object by witnesses before it was spirited away by military personnel. There has been a theory that the symbols were Russian, by these are not the Cyrillic language by any stretch of the imagination.
Are these symbols merely identifying marks of ownership - or are they a circuit pattern for an unknown type providing the propulsion function? If these symbols are part of the propulsion system's operation, then damaging just one of these symbols by a small space rock might have been the cause of the crash. A coating could be devised to protect the symbols, but perhaps the material in the symbols MUST be exposed to space for them to work. This cannot be ruled out until proven otherwise. A solar panel could be protected in space from meteors simply by mounting a thick steel plate over it. Of course, it would no longer function.
Fig. 3 - Roswell I-beam. This doesn't look like Christmas wrapping tape. [3]
If the above symbols are required for this object to function in the Roswell vehicle, it would explain why an alien race would go to the trouble to put markings on such a small part (note the person's fingers holding the object.) It's interesting to note that this basic I-beam shape is similar to that in Fig. 1, though this is a straight I-beam shape while the two objects in Fig. 1 are curved. Perhaps there is a specific reason for the basic I-beam shape. One common characteristic of an I-beam is symmetry.
If you were to disassemble the door on your car or truck you wouldn't find any detailed writing inside. An action performed by intelligent life from bacterium to higher life-forms throughout the universe has a purpose, even if we cannot recognize the purpose or function.
Prior to the early 1900's, a rectangular pipe was virtually unheard of and no useful purpose. However, radar changed all that and rectangular "pipes" made to precise tolerances were used to route microwave frequencies to and from radar dishes. In fact, there is a rectangular waveguide inside the cabinet of microwave ovens, too.
Fig. 4 - Rendlesham forest UFO symbols - this was drawn by an airman who also touched it. He claimed it was warm, smooth as glass and changed colors. [4]
Are these symbols part of a functional circuit which we cannot understand with our technology at this time, or simply a message to us like the Voyager golden record? Or perhaps this a label identifying who owns it? If it was a message from another race, then why didn't the vehicle leave it behind before taking off? These abstract symbols tend to remind one of the symbols placed on the Voyager spacecraft, which was launched in 1976.
Fig. 5 - Voyager spacecraft golden record [5]
In Fig. 5, we know these symbols have no functional purpose or play a part in spacecraft operation. Both Voyager spacecraft with this record have left the solar system. These two spacecraft continue to function well and still transmit images 31 years later.
Nanotechnology has created some amazing materials which perform on the microscopic scale. Materials technology has advanced considerably since the 1980s, which is when the picture in Fig. 1 was supposedly taken. Slowly our understanding of the strange quantum world is expanding from pure theory to experimental results. The most advanced of these results will never see the light of day for military reasons.
A popular and highly conservative magazine "Nature" is read by many scientists today. Some scientists consider it a crowning achievement to be published in that magazine. In that magazine, it was announced a few years ago that negative optical materials were being developed. These materials work exactly the opposite of glass and plastic. For example, a sheet of flat negative optical material acts like a lens to light while curved negative optical material does nothing. A negative optical material mirror will not reverse a reflection like a regular mirror does. If someone were to talk about material like this 10 years ago, they would be laughed at as a crank.
Materials technology could conceivably advance such that complex symbols printed on the surface will cause a specific function to take place. To accomplish this will require the work of those who are not afraid to think outside the box of today's science.
Ted Twietmeyer
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UFO: Contact A Chance For Mankind

UFO: Contact A Chance For Mankind This film explores the evidence of extraterrestrial contact and the knowledge they bring as well as their possible influence on the future destiny of human history. Includes a fantastic collection of interviews from top scientists and researchers from around the world, stunning computer graphics and incredable photos and video of UFOs in flight Galactic Federation of Light First Contact Ashtar Command Project World Evacuation Cropcircles REVOLUTION is Now love liebe truth wahrheit maya alien et ufo Planet X Nibiru evakuierung 2012 dna dimension galactic Consciousness Bewusstsein fifth dimension God Jesus Christ paradise kingdom of heaven New Golden Age of Aquarius Pleiadians Sheldan Nidle Mayan Calendar Bibel ovni нло круги на полях инопланетяне cropcircles kornkreise Shambhala Agharta Third Reich Atlantis enigma spiritual era delerium romantic ryan farish amethystium sleepthief spirit new age ambient final fantasy Spiritual Awakening Mandalas meditation StarWheels chillout Myst 4 IV Revelation Apocalypse Apokalypse Enthüllung Offenbarung

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Fastwalkers: UFO & Alien Disclosure (Full Length Version)

Mankind's most carefully guarded secret revealed! For the first time.... information that you were never meant to know. Amazing UFO photos and video footage you were never meant to see. over 30 experts are represented in the fields of medicine, physics, science, aviation, journalism, biology, religion, politics, military and more! The difinitive documentary about E.T and UFO disclosure. Steven Greer, Rob Simone, Jim Marrs and more..

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Best UFO Cases Caught On Tape

Updated and expansion of popular TV Special never available on DVD with new exclusive UFO footage and analysis.

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I Know what I Saw (UFO files)

‘I KNOW WHAT I SAW’ is a documentary guaranteed to change the way we see the universe. Director James Fox assembled the most credible UFO witnesses from around the world to testify at The National Press Club in Washington DC including Air Force generals, astronauts, military and commercial pilots, government and FAA officials from seven countries who tell stories that, as Governor Fife Symington from Arizona stated, “will challenge your reality”. Their accounts reveal a behind-the-scenes US operation whose policy is to confiscate and hoard substantiating evidence from close encounters to the extent that even Presidents have failed to get straight answers. ‘I KNOW WHAT I SAW’ exposes reasons behind government secrecy from those involved at the highest level. James Fox has won the support of several key media, government and military personnel, and has made numerous television and radio appearances including: ——— Appearances on Larry King Live (CNN) ——— 7/16/07, 11/9/07, 11/18/07, 1/24/08, 7/8/08, 7/18/08, 8/21/09 Anderson Cooper 360° (CNN) appearance on 11/12/07. ABC Nightline appearance on 7/6/07. Dateline NBC appearance on 5/18/08. George Noory’s Coast to Coast Radio appearances. Additionally, because of the strength of his ratings and the high level of interest from his audience, Larry King has indicated to James Fox an interest in promoting ‘I KNOW WHAT I SAW’. With the worldwide unrelenting UFO fascination and the phenomenal success of fictional UFO films, it is high …

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Thursday, July 22, 2010

Coast to Coast: Art Bell Somewhere in Time with Steven Greer
(May 22, 2010)

Art Bell: Somewhere in Time with Steven Greer
Saturday May 22, 2010
Art Bell: Somewhere in Time returned to 6/15/01, when Dr. Steven Greer talked about the successful National Press Club conference regarding ET Disclosure.
Host: Art Bell - Somewhere In Time
Guest(s): Steven Greer

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COAST TO COAST: Life Extension & Dying Process

Date: 07-13-10 Host: George Noory CTC SU=cosmicpreachers Guests: Durk Pearson, Sandy Shaw, David Kessler In the first half of the show, Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw, two of the world's leading independent experts in anti-aging research and brain biochemistry, discussed life extension and health supplements. Shaw, who appeared in just the first segment, noted that many supplements have medicinal value. "It turns out there are foods and components in foods, and nutrients, and other things found in our diet that are able to intervene and actually prevent or treat various diseases," she said. Pearson shared a number of recommendations and observations: -Taking Fish Oil supplements can reduce the occurrence of sudden death heart attacks by 40-80%. -A teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, mixed with water (taken at meals) can help with weight reduction. -People can reduce body fat by eating foods that raise your blood sugar less than other foods. For instance, sweet potatoes raise blood sugar much less than regular potatoes. The book The New Glucose Revolution lists the glycemic index values of various foods. -A supplement of Tryptophan and co-factors can calm a person down and act like "natural Prozac." -Choline and Vitamin B5 taken together (in a product such as Memory Upgrade) can improve memory and focus. -Cocoa powder (unsweetened, non-Dutch) can help reduce heart attacks. It can be sweetened with the natural sugar alternative Erythritol. In the latter half of the program, thanatologist and grief expert David Kessler, who worked with Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, talked about what happens when we die. Through his work with the dying and his interviews with eyewitnesses, he reported a number of common patterns of deathbed experiences: -Those about to die often have a deathbed vision of their mother coming for them. "Interestingly enough...the person that is there when we take our first breath, it might make sense that they would be there when we take our last," he commented. -The dying often report a "crowd" in the room, composed of various deceased relatives. What if when we die, our ancestors gather around, just as people do at a birth?, Kessler pondered. -In many deathbed encounters, the dying reach upward just before the moment of death, as though they see something above them. Website(s): Book(s): -Life Extension -On Grief and Grieving -Visions, Trips, and Crowded Rooms: Who and What You See Before You Die

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Wednesday, July 21, 2010

David Hatcher Childress: Egyptian caverns in The Grand Canyon

David Hatcher Childress (born 1957) is an American author and publisher of books on topics in alternative history and historical revisionism. His works cover such subjects as pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact, Tesla, the Knights Templar, lost cities and vimana aircraft. Despite his public involvement in the general field of study, Childress claims to have no academic credentials as a professional archaeologist nor any other scientific field of study.
Life and career

Born in France, and raised in Colorado, Childress began travelling at age nineteen in pursuit of his archaeological interests. In 1983 Childress relocated to Stelle, Illinois, a community founded by New Age writer Richard Kieninger, after Childress was given a book authored by Kieninger while touring Africa. Childress chronicled his explorations in his Lost Cities and Ancient Mysteries series of books, whose core concepts were influenced by the ideas of Kieninger.

While residing in Stelle, Childress began self publishing his own works and later other authors, which focus on presenting fringe-scientific theories regarding ancient civilizations and little-known technologies, as well as establishing a travel business in partnership with Kieninger. In 1991, in the nearby town of Kempton, Illinois, Childress, along with historian and linguist Carl W. Hart,[citation needed] founded the World Explorers Club, a group that often travels to the places he writes about, and an affiliated magazine, World Explorer.[

Childress has appeared on several television programs on NBC (The Mysterious Origins of Man), Fox Network (Sightings and Encounters), Discovery Channel, A&E, and The History Channel (e.g. Ancient Aliens), as a commentator on subjects such as the Bermuda Triangle, Atlantis, and UFOs.

Childress has been involved in two lawsuits regarding his publishing activities, one of which failed due to the expiry of a statute of limitations and the other, involving his company's publication of a master's thesis without permission, which was settled out of court.
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Monster Star Is Master Of The Universe

A huge star a staggering 320 times the size of the Sun has been found by scientists - and quickly labelled the biggest ever discovered.

An artist's impression showing the relative sizes of young stars. Picture: ESO/M Kornmesser
The Sun is truly dwarfed by the darker blue R136a1 star
The UK-led team behind the incredible discovery - headed by Professor Paul Crowther - has also said the giant star is around 10 million times brighter than the Sun.
Using the European Southern Observatory's aptly-named Very Large Telescope and Nasa's Hubble Space Telescope, the find was made during a study of two clusters of stars in a galaxy next to our own solar system called the Large Magellanic Cloud.
If the enormous star replaced the Sun in our galaxy, it would outshine it to the same degree as the Sun outshines the full Moon and reduce the Earth's year to just three weeks, the scientists claim.

Until now, experts had accepted that stars could be a maximum of 150 times the mass of the Sun.
Within the cluster, several stars were found to be larger than that but one - R136a1 - stood out.
Bizarrely, stars lose weight during their life.
Describing it as "middle-aged", Professor Crowther believes R136a1 has shed around a fifth of its mass since its birth just over a million years ago - but it is still currently a mind-boggling 265 times larger than the Sun.
The University of Sheffield academic said: "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon."
The findings are published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The young cluster of stars RMC 136a. Picture: ESO/P Crowther/CJ Evans
The star was found within a cluster and is described as 'middle-aged'
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Tuesday, July 20, 2010

'Conan the Bacterium' could have been the origin of life on Earth

Melbourne, July 19 : Brazilian scientists have suggested that organisms like a microbe dubbed 'Conan the Bacterium' could have been the origin of life on Earth, after they found that it could withstand space travel.
Researchers subjected the bug, Deinococcus radiodurans, to powerful radiation, freezing temperatures and a vacuum chamber, all designed to simulate conditions found on meteorites and other rocks in space.

Such conditions would instantly destroy almost any known organism, but the D. radiodurans colonies could not only survive but could even regenerate when conditions returned to normal.

Researchers suggested such powers make the bug, or a similar organism, a potential candidate for spreading life between planets in the early days of the solar system, reports

D. radiodurans, which has a red, spherical shape, was discovered five decades ago after a can of corned beef went rotten despite having been sterilised by radiation.

However, it is only now that the durability of the microbe has only been realised.

The most likely explanation for the germ''s toughness is that each bug possesses four to 10 copies of its genome, rather than the usual single version.

It also has a highly efficient repair system, so even if the DNA is ripped apart by radiation, bits can easily be spliced together again. 

Ok, I know everyone has been waiting eagerly to hear all about a certain radiation-resistant bacterium. Don’t worry, there is no need to hold your breath any longer. Here is everything you wanted to know and more, plus some nice pin-ups:
Conan the Bacterium: The Ancient Microscopic Hero
Deinococcus radiodurans
 (aka Deinococcus radiodurans)
By Karmen Lee Franklin
Was Mother Nature ready for the A-bomb? Nature is filled with built in checks and balances; all parts of the ecosystem are involved with one another with intricate detail. Typically, if something is available, something will eat it; but what could eat radioactive waste? In 1956, researchers in Corvallis, Oregon were sterilizing canned meat with gamma radiation, when something unusual happened: the food spoiled. A.W. Anderson, leading the study at the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, was surprised. What sort of organism could survive high doses of radiation and keep on snacking? Upon closer inspection, he found a cluster of odd, thick-celled bacteria, which he called Micrococcus radiodurans. The name was later changed to Deinococcus radiodurans, but the organism had already earned a nickname: Conan the Bacterium.
Since its discovery in the 1950s, D. radiodurans has been studied with great detail. In the 1960s, scientists isolated the mechanisms for repairing mutations in the bacterium’s DNA. It was also found to exhibit a unique cell wall structure, much like archaeabacteria, but remained classified in the kingdom of bacteria. Later, researchers charted the entire genome, enabling specific classification and close comparison with other bacteria. They discovered close cousins of D. radiodurans living in the oddest places, from hot springs to animal feces to the human stomach.
No one ever quite expected to find a bacteria that thrives on radioactive waste, especially since there hasn’t been much waste on the planet until very recently (within the last century.) On the other hand, life has been present on earth—and perhaps prepared for radioactive conditions—for at least the past 4 billion years. The latest studies suggest that all life shares a common ancestor, a thick-walled bacterium, able to withstand the harsh atmosphere and high temperatures of the early earth (Ciccarelli, et al., 1284.) D. radiodurans is not too far removed from this original ancestor, and so it is highly likely that it evolved billions of years ago, when extreme climates were the norm. Of course, the climate of Earth has settled considerably since. So, where has Conan the Bacterium been hiding out all this time?
Structure of the D. radiodurans Cell
First, it is necessary to understand the structure and abilities of D. radiodurans before identifying its ideal home. The name Deinococcus radiodurans means “strange berry that withstands Figure 1: Deinococcus radioduransradiation” (Lottman.)  Indeed, the bacterium looks a bit like a berry, round, with a reddish hue. It grows in clusters of two to four cells, depending on its stage in the reproductive process. The non-pathogenic, non-spore-forming, D. radiodurans is considered to be an obligate aerobic organism, meaning that it lives in a specific niche where oxygen is present. While the bacterium expresses these rather run-of-the-mill features, it displays some rather unusual ones as well, notably, the unique structure of the cell envelope. As Kira Makarova and colleagues describe:
 “the cell envelope of D. radiodurans is unusual in terms of its structure and composition. Although the cell envelope of D. radiodurans is reminiscent of the cell walls of gram-negative organisms, Deinococcus often stains gram positive; this may result from the inability of its thick peptidoglycan layer to decolorize” (Makarova, et al. 45.)
Most bacteria are easily classified as either Gram-positive, containing a thick cell wall of peptidoglycan which stains purple after treatment, or Gram-negative, lacking the cell wall and staining pink. Not only does the cell wall of D. radiodurans manage to stain either way, but it also exhibits a variety of unusual layers. The inner layer of the cellular envelope is the plasma membrane common to all cells. (See layers 1 and 2 below.)  The lipids of the plasma membrane are atypical, containing unique fatty acids. Unlike phosphoglycolipids in other organisms, these lipids contain alkylamines.
Figure 2: Cell 
Atop the plasma membrane is the typical peptidoglycan layer, (3) riddled with perforations, and so dubbed “the holey layer.” No significant purpose for these holes has been identified. The next layer is unique as well, containing a fine matrix of tiny compartments (4). Above the compartmentalized layer is another plasma membrane (5) (with a similar unusual composition as the inner plasma layer,) topped with an electrolucent zone.  The sixth identified layer (6) is known as the S-layer, consisting of tightly-packed hexagonal proteins. Above this, some strains of D. radiodurans contain an extra layer, (7) consisting of densely packed carbohydrates (Makarova, et al. 45-46.)
D. radiodurans Metabolism
In most ways, D. radiodurans metabolizes in a similar manner to all bacteria. It is an obligatory heterotroph, taking sustenance from just about anything it can get. In this manner, D. radiodurans acts like well-known bacteria, such as Escherichia coli or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the other hand, D. radiodurans contains a particular vacuolar type of proton ATP synthase, which is more typical of archaea and eukaryotes than bacteria. Makarova explains:
“….Unlike most other free-living bacteria, it uses the vacuolar type of proton ATP synthase instead of the F1F0 type. Vacuolar (V)-type H1-ATPase is typical of eukaryotes and archaea; all archaea have a conserved operon that consists of eight genes encoding the ATPase subunits. This operon is partially conserved (with some of the subunits missing) in a minority of characterized bacteria, where it replaces the F1F0 ATPase, e.g., in Deinococcus, Thermus, spirochetes, chlamydiae, and Enterococcus. The scattered distribution of the VATPase operon among bacteria, in contrast to its conservation in archaea, suggests that this operon has been disseminated in the bacterial world by horizontal transfer.” (Makarova, et al. 48.)
D. radiodurans depends on a steady metabolism in order to survive chronic irradiation. As one study described, “Under nutrient-limiting conditions during chronic irradiation, DNA repair was found to be limited by the metabolic capabilities of the organism and not by any nutritionally induced defect in genetic repair.” According to the authors of the study, this supports the hypothesis that “there are several defects in its metabolic pathways.” (Venkateswaran, et al. 2621.)
Reproduction of D. radiodurans
When a D. radiodurans cell divides, only the cytoplasmic membrane and the peptidoglycan layer are used. The other layers form on the surface as the daughter cell grows. During the early stages of reproduction, D. radiodurans is found in pairs, two connected cells known as diplococci. Later, as the cells undergo mitosis, they remain in clusters of four cells, known as tetracocci. Figure 3: Electron microscopy photos of the bacteria in growth (A),
 at rest (B), showing the common ring structure in three out of four 
compartments (C), the ring structure intact after exposure to an hour of
 radiation (D), ring structure breaking down after exposed for an hour 
and a half to radiation (E), and the genome exchange between 
compartments after a further hour and a half Within these clusters of cells, D. radiodurans keeps four to eight extra copies of its genome. Within one tetracocci, there are 16 to 32 copies of the genome (Daly 20.) This redundancy accounts for some of the survival abilities of the bacterium in the face of radiation, but not all. Not only does the organism maintain extra copies of its genome, it also contains other unusual repair mechanisms, in order to keep the genome consistent.
Radiation Resistance
Typically, when a living cell is exposed to radiation, point mutations within the DNA are likely to occur. A small dose of radiation can cause an amino acid to be mistaken for another, so when the cell is copied, something turns out slightly different. This is typically bad for the organism, as most mistakes result in death. For instance, a small dose of radiation 5 Gy (a Gy, named for Harold Gray, is the standard unit of radiation that can be absorbed) is enough to kill a human being. 1,000 Gy will render an entire culture of Escherichia coli sterile in moments. D. radiodurans, on the other hand, manages to withstand doses of radiation up to 10,000 Gy! It can also stand constant doses of radiation, up to 60 Gy in an hour (Daly 20.)
How does it survive? Robyn Seipp of the University of British Columbia explored the question, “does this bug wear a lead vest, or what?” (Seipp, 57.) While the unusual layering of D. radiodurans may well constitute a lead vest, the endurance of the organism may be credited to proteins responsible for repairing errors in DNA. All bacteria contain a protein called RecA (eukaryotes carry a similar protein) responsible for nucleotide repair. This protein uses an undamaged copy of the DNA strand from another section or another chromosome to replace the damaged section. Since D. radiodurans contains extra copies of its DNA, it may be easier for RecA to find replacement copies. This protein alone does not explain the resistance of D. radiodurans; other bacteria given the D. radiodurans’ version of RecA do not display resistance (Seipp 57-59.)
It is likely that a combination of special proteins give the bacterium its hardiness. The genome of D. radiodurans was recently sequenced, and more than a dozen unique proteins have been identified (Makarova, et al. 67.)  It has also been suggested that the bacteria is capable of preventing DNA degradation, and has an efficient habit of expelling damaged bases from the nucleoid region (Seipp 58.)
A variety of proteins have been shown to act in response to stress; D. radiodurans nearly has them all. (Click figure 4 for a more intensive description.) Many proteins deal with general stress, increasing or decreasing metabolic production as necessary, while others fit more sp(Click for full size and description) Conventional 
Metabolic Pathways of D.radiodurans and Systems that Generate and Defend
 Against Free Radicalsecific needs. Several proteins specifically manage high temperatures, working as “molecular chaperones,” while others repair damage from extreme cold. Some proteins regulate the organism in the face of starvation, preventing growth if the food sources run low. Proteins help D. radiodurans keep shape, regulating osmosis and the uptake of potassium. One protein deals with alkaline shock, another with acids, while still others defend against oxidative stress. A few proteins (including one only previous found in the plant kingdom, in Craterostigma plantagineum) prevent desiccation. Other proteins protect D. radiodurans in the presence of antibiotic drugs, phages, and of course, radioactive toxins (Makarova, et al. 55-58.)
With such a diverse soup of protective proteins, redundancies in the genome, and a virtual “lead vest,” D. radiodurans is one of the hardiest organisms around. However it manages to do it, Conan the Bacterium has no trouble remaining consistent in extreme environments, such as in the presence of high doses of radiation. While there is no shortage of explanations for such toughness, discovering how D. radiodurans came to be presents many difficulties.
Figure 5: The Hanford Nuclear Storage site, currently home to D. 
radioduransFinding the Origins of D. radiodurans
Since the first experiments with nuclear fission in the 1930s, quite a bit of nuclear waste has accumulated. As a result, there are now many environments where D. radiodurans may thrive. Before this time, however, radioactive materials were relatively rare. So where was Conan hanging out in the meantime? A few Russian scientists suggested in 2002 that it may have evolved on Mars, where it would have faced higher levels of cosmic radiation (Clark, 1.) Even further out in the Solar System, potential signs of D. radiodurans have been found.
Galileo’s Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer captured a false-color image of Jupiter’s moon, Europa, (figure 6) revealing an unusual spectrum. Some have speculated that the discoloration is caused by something like Conan the Bacterium. Figure 6: A home for D. 
radiodurans on Europa?“Though speculative, it is conceivable that explosions of icy slush or melt-throughs ferried extremophile organisms to Europa’s surface, where they stained the ice,” wrote Kristin Leutwyler in her book, The Moons of Jupiter (Leutwyler 126.)
NASA scientists ran experiments to test this hypothesis. “Brad Dalton of the NASA Ames Research Center imposed Europa-like conditions on acid-loving Sufolobus shibate and Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radiation-resistant organism known. Both species happen to be pink and brown in color, not unlike the hues on Europa.” Dalton discovered both similarities and differences. “[The organisms] produced spectra that shared certain features with the Europan plots. Some of the spectral bands that didn’t match corresponded to amine bonds, which would disintegrate were the bacteria subjected to radiation levels like those on the moon.” Since D. radiodurans is tough, but not that tough, it is most likely that it evolved locally, rather than in some extraterrestrial location.
Some suggest that the bacterium evolved its repair mechanisms in response to conditions other than radioactivity, including Kira S. Makarova and her colleagues. “Notwithstanding a few natural fission reactors like those that gave rise to the Oklo uranium deposits 2 billion years ago, the radiation levels in the Earth’s surface environments have provided only about 0.05 to 20 rads/year over the last 4 billion years,” she writes. “DNA damage is readily inflicted on organisms by a variety of other common physicochemical agents… or nonstatic environments… and it seems more likely that radiation resistance evolved in response to chronic exposure to nonradioactive forms of DNA damage” (Makarova, et al. 44.)
If the necessary conditions are so ubiquitous, then why should D. radiodurans exclusively have these abilities? Just because the overall levels of natural radiation on Earth are relatively low doesn’t mean there are not pockets of higher levels of radiation scattered about. Some hot springs dissolve uranium or radium within the earth, bringing the unstable isotopes to the surface. The hot springs of Ramsar, Iran, for instance, contains levels of radium which give off doses of radiation ranging up to 260 Gy (Mortazavi 1.) Could Conan have been hiding there?
Petrified forests and fossil beds can also contain high levels of radiation. If located by any natural outcropping of uranium (as are the famed dinosaur fossils of the Morrison formation) the remains will naturally “soak up” the radiation over time. The amount of radiation acquired is high enough that many museums use special storage for certain fossils and collections of petrified wood (Frame, 1.) While these forests and bones have been considered “dead” for centuries, perhaps they have been home to members of the Deinococcus family.
A Deinococcal Family Tree
Relatives of D. radiodurans have been found in strange places already. Some were found in animal feces, like Deinococcus proteolyticus, found in the feces of a Llama-like pack animal, or D. grandis in the feces of an elephant. A few, Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus murrayi were discovered in Mediterranean hot springs. Still others have been found in the flesh of haddock (Deinococcus radiopugnans) and Bombay duck (Deinococcus radiophilus.) A strain of D. radiodurans was even found in the ventilation system of a hospital in Ontario. These organisms all fall under the genus Deinococcus, in the order of Deinococcales, in the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum of the kingdom of bacteria (Makarova, et al. 45.)
Figure 7: Conan the Bacterium’s family tree
The Deinococcales are closely related to the thermophiles. Similarities between the two groups may represent the transition between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Members of the two groups share a variety of proteins, specific to the Deinococcus-Thermus group, including the special S-layer protein. Other features are shared with members of the archaeal and eukaryotic kingdoms (Makarova, et al. 72-74.)
While many of the proteins found in the Deinococcus family are homologous to others, many are distinct. At least 24% of the D. radiodurans genome is particular to the species. Figure 8: 
Circular Genome of D. RadioduransIn addition to producing the unique cellular envelope and specific types of DNA polymerase (used in repair jobs,) there are several repeating sections of unused code (small noncoding repeats, or SNRs.) These SNRs, which fall in “complex mosaic patterns,” help to make D. radiodurans unique (Makarova, et al. 71.)
The similarities in D. radiodurans to Archaea and Eukaryotes indicate that the bacterium may have played an important role in evolution, through horizontal gene transfer. It is theorized that some obligate bacteria pass genetic information to and from its host, sharing useful bits of DNA that allow either organism to adapt. This theory describes sort of a co-evolution of species, a phylogenic tree with many interwoven branches. Does D. radiodurans have a special place in this tree, sharing stress responses with various species over time? Maybe Conan has been hiding closer to home.
It was once thought that no living thing could withstand the harsh acidic environment of the human stomach. This myth was dispelled with the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, bacteria thought to cause ulcers. Realizing that the belly could be a previously unexplored ecosystem, they took a closer look and found a wealth of bacteria. A number of the organisms which were discovered living in the stomach were unusual to the researchers.
“Ten percent of the phylotypes found in this study were previously uncharacterized…. Because little is known about their closest relatives, the biological and clinical significance of these putative organisms is unclear.”  Elisabeth M. Bik and her team were surprised to find Conan’s cousin, above all the other microbes, living among thermophiles and fusobacterium and the now-popularized H. pylori. “Of the previously uncharacterized phylotypes found in this study, the sequence belonging to the Deinococcus -Thermus phylum is particularly interesting…. To our knowledge, this Deinococcus-related sequence is the first identified from a human.” (Bik, et al. 736.) The organism, for the time being known as GMC-T94, most closely resembled Deinococcus indicus, which has been found in water naturally contaminated with arsenic.
Perhaps Conan the Bacterium (or a close relative) has been living inside of us from the beginning, helping us adapt to stressful conditions. It might seem especially appropriate then, that D. radiodurans is being engineered to help tackle some of humanity’s largest messes.
 Usefulness of D. radiodurans
 In 1999, Hassan Brim and others explored the potential of engineering D. radiodurans to clean toxic waste. By adding a gene isolated from E. coli known to provide resistance to high levels of mercury to the D. radiodurans genome, they were able to make Conan the Bacterium even beefier. Figure 9: A barrel of radioactive toxic waste 
deposited in the Gulf of the Farralones. Could we get Conan the 
Bacterium to clean messes like this?By combining the radioactive resistance of D. radiodurans with the ability to process heavy metals, they created a powerful tool for the processing of toxic waste. Their goal was to create a strain of D. radiodurans that could both “confer resistance to the most common metallic waste constituents” and “transform those metals to less toxic and less soluble chemical forms.” (Brim, et al. 85.)
The experiment was quite successful, as the modified bacteria thrived in a radioactive, mercury-rich environment. Brim commented, “This remarkable genome plasticity shows that D. radiodurans is able to maintain, replicate, and express extremely large segments of foreign DNA, and that it will probably be able to accommodate the large number of gene cassettes required for bioremediation of complex waste mixtures.” In other words, if Conan the Bacterium is put to work, he does the job.
Where is Conan the Bacterium going from here? With nuclear power and weapons disposal, we are creating new habitats in which it can flourish. Is diversity in these habitats possible—or does the unique system of DNA repair indicate that it is unlikely to evolve? Perhaps, it was, until we came along to give it a job or two. We still have much to learn about the potentials and abilities of D. radiodurans. Whether it comes to the natural disposal of radioactive waste, or the simple adaptation to stress, Conan the Bacterium, is truly our ancient hero in microscopic form.

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Conner O'Reilly - Hear The Angels Call

Movies fragments from:
Angels & Demons (2009)
Legion (2010)

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Monday, July 19, 2010

UFO Files: Brazil's Roswell

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

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Extra Terrestrial Propulsion & Free Energy Stanton Friedman

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Sunday, July 18, 2010

Royal astronomer: 'Aliens may be staring us in the face'

Invisible Extraterrestrials? World-Leading Physicist Says 
"They Could Exist in Forms We Can't Conceive"
Aliens may be 'staring us in the face' according to Lord Martin 
Rees, the president of the Royal Society
Aliens may be 'staring us in the face' according to Lord Martin Rees, 
the president of the Royal Society

The intriguing remark was made by Lord Martin Rees, a leading cosmologist and astrophysicist who is the president of Britain’s Royal Society and astronomer to the Queen of England. Rees, who last month hosted the National Science Academy’s first conference on the possibility of alien life, said he believes the existence of extra terrestrial life may be beyond human understanding.
“They could be staring us in the face and we just don’t recognize them. The problem is that we’re looking for something very much like us, assuming that they at least have something like the same mathematics and technology."

“I suspect there could be life and intelligence out there in forms we can’t conceive. Just as a chimpanzee can’t understand quantum theory, it could be there as aspects of reality that are beyond the capacity of our brains.” 
During the conference entitled ‘The Detection of Extra-terrestrial Life and the Consequences for Science and Society’, Rees asked whether the discovery of aliens would cause terror or delight on earth, the Telegraph reported.
However, Frank Drake, the founder of SETI and Drake's Equation, told the conference that satellite TV and the “digital revolution” was making humanity invisible to aliens by cutting the transmission of TV and radio signals into space. The earth is currently surrounded by a 50 light year-wide “shell” of radiation from analogue TV, radio and radar transmissions. According to Drake, digital TV signals would look like white noise to a race of observing aliens.
Although the signals have spread far enough to reach many nearby star systems, they are rapidly vanishing in the wake of digital technology, said Drake. In the 1960s, Drake spearheaded the conversion of the Arecibo Observatory to a radio astronomy center. As a researcher, Drake was involved in the early work on pulsars. Drake also designed the Pioneer plaque with Carl Sagan in 1972, the first physical message sent into space. The plaque was designed to be understandable by extraterrestrials should they encounter it.
Milan Cirkovic of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, points out that the median age of terrestrial planets in the Milky Way is about 1.8 gigayears (one billion years) greater than the age of the Earth and the Solar System, which means that the median age of technological civilizations should be greater than the age of human civilization by the same amount. The vastness of this interval indicates that one or more processes must suppress observability of extraterrestrial communities.
Since at this point, there is no direct and/or widely apparent evidence that extraterrestrial life exists, it likely means one of the following:
We are (A) the first intelligent beings ever to become capable of making our presence known, and leaving our planet. At this point, there are no other life forms out there as advanced as us. Or perhaps extraterrestrial life does exists, but for some reason extraterrestrial life is so very rare and so very far away we’ll never make contact anyway—making extraterrestrial life nonexistent in a practical sense at least.
Or is it (B) that many advanced civilizations have existed before us, but without exception, they have for some unknown reason, existed and/or expanded in such a way that they are completely undetectable by our instruments.
Or is it (C) There have been others, but they have all run into some sort of “cosmic roadblock” that eventually destroys them, or at least prevents their expansion beyond a small area.
Since Earth’s placement in space and time appears to be unremarkably random, proposition “A” seems fairly unlikely. Assuming humans evolved like other forms of life into our present state due to natural selection, then there's really nothing all that mystical, special or remarkable about our development as a species either. Due to the shear numbers, there are almost certainly other planets capable of supporting at least some form of life. If that is so, then for Earthlings to be the very first species ever to make a noticeable mark on the universe, from a statistical perspective, is incredibly unlikely.
For proposition “B” to be correct would defy all logic. If potentially thousands, or even millions of advanced extraterrestrial civilizations exist in the known universe, then why would all of them, without exception, choose to expand or exist in such a way that they are completely undetectable? It’s conceivable that some might, or perhaps even the majority, but for all of them to be completely undetectable civilizations does not seem likely either.
Proposition C in some ways, appears to be more likely than A or B. If “survival of the fittest” follows similar pathways on other worlds, then our own “civilized” nature could be somewhat typical of extraterrestrial civilizations that have, or do, exist. Somehow, we all get to the point where we end up killing ourselves in a natural course of technological development and thereby self-inflict our own “cosmic roadblock”.
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