Monday, February 28, 2011

The Universe – Time Travel (Season 5)

The Universe Season 5 Episode 4 – Time Travel HD. One of the Universe’s most enduring mysteries is Time Travel. In this episode, we explore the possibilities.

Discover why Time Travel into the future is unavoidable in the Einsteinian world of Relativity. As for the past… the laws of physics do not tell us it’s impossible, but the bizarre consequences of going into the past and altering the future make for mind-bending science. Finally, we go for the future by traveling to the nearest star, 4.3 light years away… in only 45 days.

Our destination may be an Earth-like planet; a planet scientists are now hunting for, and may find in the next 3 to 4 years.

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Sunday, February 27, 2011

Carbon Based Lifeforms - Right Where It Ends

Carbon Based Lifeforms - Right Where It Ends from album " Interloper". Performed live for the first time at Stockholm's Cosmonova Planetarium in November 2009, the music compositions retain their ethereal, wide, uplifting nature and are infused with haunting vocals by Karin My Andersson and poems by Anna Segerstad.
Carbon Based Lifeforms aficionados will recognize their pulsing bass lines, soft pads and acid melodies.
Cherry on the cake, this time Johannes Hedberg picked up guitar and bass and Karin My Andersson her Cello to add a more organic texture to the music.
'Interloper' presents 10 mesmerizing tracks which will propel the listener into a gentle and vibrant journey through warm grooves and fluid electronic atmospheres.

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Saturday, February 26, 2011

Technological singularity. Ray Kurzweil - AI (Artificial Intelligence)





A technological singularity is a hypothetical event occurring when technological progress becomes so rapid that it makes the future after the singularity qualitatively different and harder to predict. Many of the most recognized writers on the singularity, such as Vernor Vinge and Ray Kurzweil, define the concept in terms of the technological creation of superintelligence, and allege that a post-singularity world would be unpredictable to humans due to an inability of human beings to imagine the intentions or capabilities of superintelligent entities. Some writers use "the singularity" in a broader way to refer to any radical changes in our society brought about by new technologies such as molecular nanotechnology, although Vinge and other prominent writers specifically state that without superintelligence, such changes would not qualify as a true singularity. Many writers also tie the singularity to observations of exponential growth in various technologies (with Moore's Law being the most prominent example), using such observations as a basis for predicting that the singularity is likely to happen sometime within the 21st century.

Vernor Vinge proposed that the creation of superhuman intelligence would represent a breakdown in the ability of humans to model the future thereafter. He was the first to use the term "singularity" for this notion, in a 1983 article, and a later 1993 article entitled "The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era" was widely disseminated on the World Wide Web and helped to popularize the idea. Vinge also compared the event of a technological singularity to the breakdown of the predictive ability of physics at the space-time singularity beyond the event horizon of a black hole.

A technological singularity includes the concept of an intelligence explosion, a term coined in 1965 by I. J. Good. Although technological progress has been accelerating, it has been limited by the basic intelligence of the human brain, which has not, according to Paul R. Ehrlich, changed significantly for millennia. However with the increasing power of computers and other technologies, it might eventually be possible to build a machine that is more intelligent than humanity. If superhuman intelligences were invented, either through the amplification of human intelligence or artificial intelligence, it would bring to bear greater problem-solving and inventive skills than humans, then it could design a yet more capable machine, or re-write its source code to become more intelligent. This more capable machine then could design a machine of even greater capability. These iterations could accelerate, leading to recursive self improvement, potentially allowing enormous qualitative change before any upper limits imposed by the laws of physics or theoretical computation set in.

Futurist Ray Kurzweil postulates a law of accelerating returns in which the speed of technological change increases exponentially, generalizing Moore's law to technologies predating the integrated circuit, and including material technology (especially as applied to nanotechnology), medical technology and others. Like other authors, though, he reserves the term "Singularity" for a rapid increase in intelligence (as opposed to other technologies), writing for example that "The Singularity will allow us to transcend these limitations of our biological bodies and brains ... There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine". He also defines his predicted date of the singularity (2045) in terms of when he expects computer-based intelligences to significantly exceed the sum total of human brainpower, writing that advances in computing before that date "will not represent the Singularity" because they do "not yet correspond to a profound expansion of our intelligence."

The term "technological singularity" reflects the idea that such change may happen suddenly, and that it is difficult to predict how such a new world would operate. It is unclear whether an intelligence explosion of this kind would be beneficial or harmful, or even an existential threat, as the issue has not been dealt with by most artificial general intelligence researchers, although the topic of friendly artificial intelligence is investigated by the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Humanity Institute.

Many prominent technologists and academics dispute the plausibility of a technological singularity, including Jeff Hawkins, John Holland, Jaron Lanier, and Gordon Moore, whose eponymous Moore's Law is often cited in support of the concept.


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Thursday, February 24, 2011

Madame Blavatsky

Helena von Hahn, Better known as Helena Blavatsky (Russian:Ukrainian) or Madame Blavatsky, was the founder of Theosophy and the Theosophical Society.


part 1


part 2


part 3


part 4



Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Russian: Елена Петровна Блаватская, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Блаватська), (born as Helena von Hahn (Russian: Елена Петровна Ган, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Ган); 12 August [O.S. 31 July] 1831, Yekaterinoslav, Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire (today Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine) – died 8 May 1891, London, Great Britain) was a founder of Theosophy and the Theosophical Society.

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Monday, February 21, 2011

Scientists build the world's first anti-laser

Main studying a laser beam  
Traditional lasers rely on gain mediums to produce beams of coherent light
 
Physicists have built the world's first device that can cancel out a laser beam - a so-called anti-laser.
The device, created by a team from Yale University, is capable of absorbing an incoming laser beam entirely.
But this is not intended as a defence against high-power laser weapons, the researchers said.
Instead they think it could be used in next-generation supercomputers which will be built with components that use light rather than electrons.
Professor Douglas Stone and colleagues at Yale University had initially been developing a theory to explain which materials could be used as the basis of lasers.
Strange lasers Recent advances in laser design have resulted in a number of unusual devices that do not fit the traditional concept of a laser, Professor Stone explained.
"So we were working on a theory that could predict what could be used to form a laser," he said.
That theory also predicted that instead of amplifying light into coherent pulses, as a laser does, it should be possible to create a device that absorbs laser light hitting it, said Professor Stone - an anti-laser.
They have now succeeded in building one.

What is a laser?

  • A laser is a device that can produce a beam of coherent light
  • The beam is produced using a quantum effect, whereby electrons can be made to emit light
  • That is achieved by stimulating electrons inside a gain medium, typically using an electric current
  • Resonators are used to amplify the light produced to form the intense beam
Their device focuses two lasers beams of a specific frequency into a specially designed optical cavity made from silicon, which traps the incoming beams of light and forces them to bounce around until all their energy is dissipated.
In a paper published in the journal Science they demonstrated that the anti-laser could adsorb 99.4 per cent of incoming light, for a specific wavelength.
Light speed Altering the wavelength of the incoming light means that the anti-laser can effectively be turned on and off - and that could be used in optical switches, Professor Stone told BBC News.
Depiction of the anti-laser in action  
The anti-laser could turn out to be more useful in computing than weapon defence
 
Building something which can absorb light over a wide range of wavelengths is pretty simple, said Professor Stone, but only doing so for a particular wavelength makes the anti-laser potentially useful in optical computing.
The anti-laser's big advantage is that it is built using silicon, which is already widely used in computing.
It would not, however, be much use as a laser shield, according to Professor Stone.
"The energy gets dissipated as heat. So if someone sets a laser on you with enough power to fry you, the anti-laser won't stop you from frying," he said.
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Twinkle, twinkle, another star: First cosmic census
estimates there are 50 BILLION planets in Milky Way


Scientists have estimated the first cosmic census of planets in our galaxy and the numbers are astronomical - at least 50 billion planets in the Milky Way.

And some 500 million of those planets are in what is known as the Goldilocks zone, where the climate is thought to be not-too-hot and not-too-cold, and life could exist.
The numbers were extrapolated from the early results of NASA's Kepler telescope, almost two years though a three-and-a-half year mission which has cost an estimated $600million.
Scroll down to watch a detailed video of the Kepler telescope's amazing findings
Starry night: New research estimates that there are some 50 billion planets in the Milky Way
Starry night: New research estimates that there are some 50 billion planets in the Milky Way

Goldilocks zone: There are approximately 500 million planets in the area where it is believed life could exist
Goldilocks zone: There are approximately 500 million planets
in the area where it is believed life could exist
Kepler science chief William Borucki says scientists took the number of planets they found in the first year of searching a small part of the night sky and then made an estimate on how likely stars are to have planets. Kepler spots planets as they pass between Earth and the star it orbits.

MISSION FINDINGS

10.5 per cent of the stars in the sample are predicted to have Earth-size planets (that is, 50 per cent to 125 per cent as wide as Earth)
7.3 per cent should have super-Earths (125 to 200 per cent as wide as Earth)
20.8 per cent should have Neptune-sized planets (two to six times as wide as Earth)
5.2 per cent should have Jupiter-scale planets (more than six times as wide as Earth)
So far Kepler has found 1,235 candidate planets, with 54 in the Goldilocks zone, where life could possibly exist.
Kepler's main mission is not to examine individual worlds, but give astronomers a sense of how many planets, especially potentially habitable ones, there are likely to be in our galaxy.
They would use the one-four-hundredth of the night sky that Kepler is looking at and extrapolate from there.

Borucki and colleagues figured one of two stars has planets and one of 200 stars has planets in the habitable zone, announcing these ratios Saturday at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual conference in Washington.
And that's a minimum because these stars can have more than one planet and Kepler has yet to get a long enough glimpse to see planets that are further out from the star, like Earth, Borucki said.

For example, if Kepler were 1,000 light years from Earth and looking at our sun and noticed Venus passing by, there's only a one-in-eight chance that Earth would also be seen, astronomers said.
Backside_of_the_Kepler_space_telescope.jpg
Kepler_space_telescope.jpg
Powerful: NASA's Kepler spacecraft is shown - back (top) and front - and named after Johannes Kepler, the German mathematician and astrologist who died in 1630

Complex: A graphic showing how the Kepler telescope works
Complex: A graphic showing how the Kepler telescope works
To get the estimate for the total number of planets, scientists then took the frequency observed already and applied it to the number of stars in the Milky Way.

For many years scientists figured there were 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, but last year a Yale scientist figured the number was closer to 300 billion stars.


Either way it shows that Carl Sagan was right when he talked of billions and billions of worlds, said retired NASA astronomer Steve Maran, who praised the research but wasn't part of it.

Covered: This Kepler Mission Star Field shows the Milky Way region of the sky where the telescope has been pointing
Covered: This Kepler Mission Star Field shows the Milky Way region of
the sky where the telescope has been pointing


And that's just our galaxy. Scientists figure there are 100 billion galaxies.

Borucki said the new calculations lead to worlds of questions about life elsewhere in the cosmos.
'The next question is why haven't they visited us?'

And the answer? 'I don't know,' Borucki said.
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Thursday, February 17, 2011

A Nine-Planet Solar System Once More?
NASA Telescope May Reveal New Planet, Tyche

103458459
Digitally generated image of our solar system and points beyond.

A few years ago we all thought there were nine planets. But now space is a whole lot more complicated. The hunt for the giant planet is on.
When Pluto was demoted from its planet status five years ago, we were pretty shook up. Having eight planets just isn't so catchy. Classroom wall charts around the globe were taken down and new rhymes had to be learned. Luckily, scientists have strong evidence to suggest that there is a ninth planet lurking beyond Pluto, and what's more, it's a big one.

Evidence gathered by the NASA space telescope, Wise, could prove that this gas giant is hidden in the outer Oort Cloud, the most remote part of the solar system. The suspected planet has been named Tyche (pronounced ty-kee) by the two astrophysicists proposing it for "planet" status, Daniel Whitmire and John Matese from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. The first batch of data on Tyche is due to be released in April. After that, the planet may reveal itself within two years, say the two scientists. "If it does, John and I will be doing cartwheels. And that's not easy at our age." Professor Whitmire said.
Once Tyche has been located, it is up to the International Astronomical Union (IAU)  whether or not it gains full "planet" status. The main problem the IAU could have with the proposal is that Tyche probably formed around another star and was later captured by the sun's gravitational field. They might even have to create a whole new category for the gas-ball giant.

Tyche is suspected to be four times the mass of Jupiter with an orbit around 15,000 times further from the Sun than Earth's, and 375 times further than Pluto's. It will probably be composed mainly of hydrogen and helium, with an atmosphere just like Jupiter's. Professor Whitmire added that the planet-in-waiting will have its own moons, like other outer planets, and its surface will be covered in colorful spots, bands and clouds.
In a few months time, we could be back to the good ol' nine-planet solar system, courtesy of the giant Tyche. Watch this space. (Via The Independent)
Clarification: According to a NASA spokesperson, it is still too early to definitively tell if Wise data confirms or rules out the object in the Oort cloud. After data is collected for a few years, the hypothesis that Tyche exists will be tested. Some language from the original post has been modified accordingly.
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Monday, February 14, 2011

Are you a health food junkie?
How a dangerously obsessive quest for the perfect body has become the new middle-class eating disorder

We all know the type. They never let wheat, yeast or dairy pass their lips. They’ve cut out alcohol and caffeine. They’re obsessed with healthy eating — yet every day, they look more unwell and unhappier.
These are the symptoms of a condition called ‘orthorexia’ by dieticians. It is, apparently, on the increase — particularly in professional women in their 30s.
Orthorexia was coined in 1997 by Californian doctor Steven Bratman in his book Health Food Junkies, and means ‘correct appetite’ (from the Greek orthos for right and orexis for appetite). It is a fixation with eating ‘pure’ food that, far from doing you good, can become so extreme that it leads to malnutrition, chronic ill health and depression.
'Healthy' eating: But obsessing about eating a low fat diet can be bad for you (posed by model)
'Healthy' eating: But obsessing about eating a low fat diet can be bad for you (posed by model)
Plenty of celebrities are secret long-term orthorexics, passing off their limited diet of sashimi or steamed broccoli as ‘getting in shape for a part’.
But they’re not the only ones. Many of us have fallen into the same trap, believing that the more ‘bad’ foods we cut out, the healthier we’ll be. But it’s the start of a slippery slope.
And it doesn’t just stop at food — orthorexics are often gym bunnies, who’ll work out for two hours and then go for a ten-mile run.
The grim truth is that this level of health obsession is a potentially dangerous form of self-control. And it’s increasingly prevalent.
‘Women are much more likely today to become exercise and diet-addicted because of our celebrity-obsessed culture and the pressure to be  slim,’ says Lucy Jones of the British Dietetic Association.

‘While this condition is not as dangerous as anorexia, any obsession that cuts out entire food groups can lead to long-term health damage  such as a lack of bone density,  heart attacks, strokes and diabetes.’
It’s more difficult to spot than anorexia or bulimia because sufferers can simply insist that they’re ‘look-ing after themselves’, or ‘have a  wheat intolerance’.
But when the desire to be healthy moves from avoidance of junk food to a fear of perfectly healthy food groups such as dairy, carbs or wheat, it’s a warning sign of orthorexia.
‘I’ve always had a difficult relationship with food,’ says Judith Fine, 34, a freelance PA from Solihull.
Cost of living
The typical woman spends £336 a year on beauty products and £228 on vitamins and the gym
‘In my early 20s, I was diagnosed as coeliac, meaning I’m gluten intolerant. My allergy to wheat gave me such violent stomach cramps that I often felt faint.
‘At the time, I weighed 10st, but because I had to cut out so many different foods — bread, pulses and oat-based products — my weight fell to 6st 9lb in just three months, which was dangerously low for my height  of 5ft 3in.’
Judith realised she was becoming gaunt and her family feared she could be anorexic, so she attempted to add more foods to her diet.
‘But the fear of going back up to 10st has never left me,’ she says. ‘I used to be a classic pear shape. As the weight fell off, I looked so much better in clothes. I am now extremely disciplined about what I eat.’
While most of us might cut out potatoes or cake for a while to lose a few pounds, Judith eats only ‘pure’ food, containing no additives or fat.
‘If you put a roast dinner in front of me I’d feel faint,’ she says. ‘I couldn’t bear having so much food on my plate.
‘I never have cream, chips or bread. My typical day’s diet would be fat-free cereal for breakfast with skimmed milk and a black coffee or tea. I never use sugar or salt.
‘For lunch, I’d have plain salad, without dressing, followed by fresh fruit. Dinner is the same, with a piece of tuna, skinned chicken or a slice of lean meat.’
Though Judith is now 8st, she can’t simply relax and enjoy a balanced diet or an occasional treat. ‘I can’t bear any food that would bloat me. If you put fatty food in front of me I’d feel panic-stricken,’ she says.
‘I’ve been told I’m running the risk of arthritis or osteoporosis. My periods stopped for 18 months, too, and I often feel tired.’
Limited: Jodie Hart¿s three meals a day
Limited diet: Jodie Hart's three meals a day
But despite these disturbing warning signs, she admits she is committed to her extreme lifestyle.
‘Until recently, I put in two 90-minute sessions at the gym every day. While I’ve stopped going twice a day, I still go  daily and also run up to five miles  three times a week. I live on the buzz of endorphins.’
Judith’s obsession is not only affecting her health, it’s also having an impact on her relationship.
‘My boyfriend Mike, 44, is concerned about me. He says that I need more protein because I exercise so much.’
She insists on eating separately from him and, most worryingly, she says: ‘I don’t think I’ll have children because I’d feel out of control — I couldn’t bear not being able to go to the gym.
‘Yes, I do see how obsessive I’m being, but I am addicted to being slim and healthy.’
Sadly, she doesn’t see the irony in her statement. And she’s not alone. Karen Norris, 26, a nutritionist and personal trainer from Cambridge, has been orthorexic since her early 20s, when she cut out sugar, saturated fat and wheat, and began training.
‘I’m obsessed with my body and the food I put into it,’ she says. ‘I see food only as fuel — never as a treat — and I exercise compulsively.’
Karen’s daily diet is oats and blue- berries for breakfast, a few almonds as a snack, chicken or fish with salad for lunch and the same for dinner.
‘I also have protein drinks to build up my muscles,’ she says. ‘I’ve given up caffeine and drink lots of water. I try to eat little and often rather than three set meals. Occasionally I drink alcohol, but that’s a rare treat.’
Unfit for life
Six out of ten Britons say they would not be motivated to exercise -
even if their lives depended on it
Karen doesn’t believe she’s alone in her extreme behaviour.
‘More and more women of my age are becoming obsessed with health and fitness,’ she says.
‘I do at least an hour a day’s weight training, plus an hour’s cardio session. My body relies on the adrenalin rush and the endorphins that exercise releases, so if I don’t fulfil my craving, I feel anxious and angry.
‘I can’t bear the idea of putting on fat — I just can’t handle the thought of my body looking less then perfect.’
Yet despite her obsession, Karen doesn’t see herself as suffering from an eating disorder.
‘I look at what I eat as an experiment,’ she says. ‘It’s amazing how you can control how you look by exactly what you put into your body.
‘I would never eat biscuits or cakes, and fruit also bloats you, so I tend to avoid it. I don’t have children, so I can concentrate on myself and my body.’
Orthorexia seems to be a particular danger for women who have the time to focus on themselves and the way they look. For busy mothers, such a strict regime would be impossible, but for singletons, the quest for the perfect body can become an over-riding — and perhaps self-indulgent — passion.
‘This year, I stopped eating wheat, gluten, salt, sugar, caffeine and alcohol,’ says Jodie Hart, 24, from South London,  who is single and works in PR.
‘I wanted to get fit to run a marathon, so I’m running up to 12 miles three times a week. I’m also going to the gym three or four times a week for 90-minute sessions. I’ve lost so much weight — close to a stone — that people are beginning to worry about me.
‘Just recently, a colleague said: ‘‘You’re far too skinny.’’ But the more the weight drops off me, the better I feel.’
Unlike Karen and Judith, Jodie is able to admit she is orthorexic.
‘I clearly have the symptoms,’ she says. ‘I’ve started getting up at 6.30am to go running before work.
‘During the day I often feel exhausted. But once you’re locked on to a regime like this you feel powerless to stop.
‘My family and friends are worried about me, but I’m thrilled with my new physique and get a buzz out of being able to control my body. It’s easy to get hooked on the adrenalin.’
Jodie has controlled her food intake to the point of retraining her brain to reject anything she considers unhealthy.
‘I live on fresh fruit, salad, steamed vegetables and fish. I don’t eat fat at all,’ she says.
‘I can no longer bear the thought of eating anything like a doughnut or chocolate biscuits.
‘For breakfast, I have a bowl of fresh fruit. Lunch is soup or a bowl of salad, and the same for dinner. It is repetitious, but I am so proud that I can discipline myself in this way.’
In the same way anorexics swap tips on avoiding food, orthorexics set goals to keep themselves going. Jodie plans to run the Berlin Marathon this summer, even though she admits her punishing training regime leaves her exhausted.
‘Recently, when my mum saw me, she was really shocked,’ says Jodie.
‘She said: ‘‘You’re losing too much weight too quickly. You’re pushing yourself too hard.’’
‘The trouble is that once you start living like this, it’s very hard to stop.’
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Scientists find gene that could help body cure itself of HIV

Scientists may have found a way for the body to cure itself of HIV.
In a series of tantalising experiments, they were able to harness the immune  system to such an extent that it defeated the virus and completely removed it  from the body.
While there have been advances in treating the condition, the virus’s  remarkable ability to outwit the immune system means that the recipe for a cure  has so far eluded even the world’s best scientists.
 
New hope: Scientists may have found a way to cure AIDS
New hope: Scientists may have found a way to cure AIDS
 
The latest experiments were carried out in mice but the researchers believe  they raise the possibility of a cure, not only for HIV but for other long-term  infections, including hepatitis B and C and tuberculosis.
A lot of the work into finding a cure for these illnesses has focussed on  trying to use the immune system to gradually eliminate the virus or bacterium.
But the latest research, funded by the Australian and Canadian governments,  suggests that a short, sharp shock is far more effective.
Dr Marc (CORR) Pellegrini, of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute  said:  ‘Viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B and C overwhelm the immune system, leading  to establishment of chronic infections that are lifelong and incurable.
‘Despite tremendous efforts, long-lived immune responses for some of these  viruses are ineffective, because the body is so overrun by virus that the  immune system just give up trying to battle the infection. 
‘Some people have coined the phrase “immune exhaustion” to explain the  phenomenon.
 
Breakthrough: the research centres on a gene called SOCS-3 which has a strong reaction to overwhelming infections (file photo)
Breakthrough: the research centres on a gene called SOCS-3 which has a strong reaction to overwhelming infections (file photo)
 
‘Our approach is to discover some of the mechanisms that cause this immune  exhaustion, and manipulate host genes to see if we can boost the natural immune  response in order to beat infection.’
The breakthrough centres on a gene called SOCS-3.
When faced with an overwhelming infection such as HIV, the gene becomes highly  active and slams the brakes on the immune response, allowing the virus to  persist.
When the researchers boosted levels of a hormone called IL-7, the gene  ‘switched off’ and mice were able to gradually remove HIV from their bodies,  the journal Cell reports.
Dr Pellegrini said the research had provided ‘excellent ideas ‘for new  therapies that could target and boost host immune cells called T cells to fight  disease, rather than targeting the disease itself.
‘The findings could help to develop drugs that target some of these host  molecules, such as SOCS-3, and turn them off for very short, defined periods of  time to reinvigorate the T cells, allowing them to regroup to fight  infection,’  he said.
An estimated 86,500 Britons are living with HIV, including more than 21,000 who  are unaware of their infection.
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Saturday, February 12, 2011

Brian Greene: The universe on a string


Brian Greene
Professor Mathematics & Physics
Columbia University

Theoretical Physics - String Theory & Quantum Gravity

URL: http://www.iscap.columbia.edu

Biography

EDUCATION:

Ph.D. 1987 Oxford University

RESEARCH:

My area of research is superstring theory, a theory that purports to give us a quantum theory of gravity as well as a unified theory of all forces and all matter. As such, superstring theory has the potential to realize Einstein's long sought dream of a single, all encompassing, theory of the universe. One of the strangest features of superstring theory is that it requires the universe to have more than three spatial dimensions. Much of my research has focused on the physical implications and mathematical properties of these extra dimensions --- studies that collectively go under the heading "quantum geometry".

Quantum geometry differs in substantial ways from the classical geometry underlying general relativity. For instance, topology change (the "tearing" of space) is a sensible feature of quantum geometry even though, from a classical perspective, it involves singularities. As another example, two different classical spacetime geometries can give rise to identical physical implications, again at odds with conclusions based on classical general relativity.

Superstring theory is most relevant under extreme physical conditions such as those that existed at the time of the big bang. Recently, we have formed a new institute at Columbia called ISCAP (Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics) dedicated to understanding the interface of superstring theory and cosmology. One primary focus of ISCAP is the search for subtle signatures of string theory that may be imprinted in the precision cosmological data that will be collected through a variety of experiments over the next decade.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS:

for a more complete listing of publications see SPIRES. Some selected publications are:
"Universal Correction to the Inflationary Vacuum", B. R. Greene, M. Parikh, and J.P. van der Schaar, {To Appear.}
 "An Effect of alpha' corrections on Racetrack Inflation", B. R. Greene and A. Weltman { JHEP 0603 (2006) 035.}
 "Extracting New Physics from the CMB", B. R. Greene, K. Schalm, G. Shiu, J.P. van der Schaar, {Proceedings XXIII Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics.}
 "Decoupling in an expanding Universe: Backreaction barely Constrains short distance effects on the CMB '', B. R. Greene, K. Schalm, G. Shiu, J.P. van der Schaar, { JCAP 0502 (2005) 001.}
 "String Windings in the Early Universe", R. Easther, B. R. Greene, M. Jackson, D. Kabat,
{JCAP 0502 (2005) 009.}
 "Brane Gases in the Early Universe: Thermodynaics and Cosmology", R. Easther, B. R. Greene, M. Jackson, D. Kabat, {JCAP 0401 (2004) 006.}
 "Brane Gas Cosmology in  M-Theory: Late Time Behavior", R. Easther, B. R. Greene, M. Jackson, D. Kabat, {Phys. Rev. D67 (2003) 123501.}
 "On the Hagedorn Behaviour of PP-wave Strings and N=4 SYM Theory at Finite R-Charge Density", B. R Greene, K. Schalm, G. Shiu, {Nucl.Phys. B652 (2003) 105.}
"A Generic Estimate of Trans-Planckian Modifications to the Primordial Power Spectrum in Inflation", R. Easther, B. Greene, W. Kinney, G. Shiu, Phys. Rev. D66 (2002) 023518.
"Inflation as a Probe of Short Distance Physics", R. Easther, B. Greene, W. Kinney, G. Shiu, Phys. Rev. D64 (2001) 103502.
"D-Brane Topology Changing Transitions", Brian R. Greene, Nucl. Phys. B525 (1998) 284-296.
"Orbifold Resolution by D-Branes", Michael R. Douglas, Brian R. Greene, David R. Morrison, Nucl.Phys. B506 (1997) 84-106.
"Black Hole Condensation and the Unification of String Vacua", Brian R. Greene, David R. Morrison, Andrew Strominger, Nucl.Phys. B451 (1995) 109-120.
"Calabi-Yau Moduli Space, Mirror Manifolds and Spacetime Topology Change in String Theory", P.S. Aspinwall, B.R. Greene, D.R. Morrison, Nucl.Phys. B416 (1994) 414-480
"Duality in Calabi-Yau Moduli Space", B.R.Greene and M.R.Plesser, Nucl. Phys. B338 (1990) 15.
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Thursday, February 10, 2011

Coast to Coast: Dr. Michio Kaku (Feb. 2011)

Dr. Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, best-selling author, and popularizer of science. He’s the co-founder of string field theory (a branch of string theory), and continues Einstein’s search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into one unified theory.

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Wednesday, February 09, 2011

Amazingly beautiful UFO deploying drones

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Scientists model ancient bog woman's face

Two of five models of bog woman

German researchers have shed light on life during the Iron Age after examining the ancient remains of a woman found in a bog in what is now Lower Saxony. The body dates back to the pre-Roman era, more than 2,600 years ago.

A team of experts presented their findings on Thursday in Hannover, including facial simulations of the bog woman dubbed “Moora.” Archaeologists first began studying the find six years ago, according to news magazine Der Spiegel.

Experts from the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) generated a digital model of the bones, which was used to make a replica of the bog woman’s skull. Later, five researchers from Germany and the United Kingdom produced a series of facial reconstructions.

“It’s a look into the face of a young woman who lived at a time when Rome was still just a small village,” said Stefan Winghart, head of the regional heritage conservation office in Lower Saxony.

After examining Moora’s corpse, researchers estimated she was between 17- and 19-years-old at the time of her death. Her life was brief but gruelling: The team determined the young woman suffered from malnutrition, chronic inflammation, curvature of the spine – as well as a benign tumour at the base of her skull. The bones also point to a pair of skull fractures due to blunt trauma.

Experts said Moora probably lived a life of intense physical labour – and likely regularly carried heavy loads, such as water jugs, while roaming through the marshland.

When Moora’s remains were initially uncovered – including vertebrae, hair and pieces of the skull – the body was not treated as an archaeological find. Instead forensics experts in Hamburg identified the corpse as a 16- to 21-year-old woman with poor dental hygiene, Der Spiegel said. Until a DNA test proved otherwise, the corpse was suspected to be the body of the young woman Elke Kerll, who disappeared in 1969 after going to a dance club.

Yet after a human hand was uncovered at the site five years after the initial find, archaeologists began to take a closer look. Radiocarbon dating completed at the University of Kiel confirmed the girl had died between 764 and 515 B.C.

Despite researchers’ efforts to learn more about Moora’s life, the circumstances of her death remain a mystery. The team determined the young woman was naked at the time of her death – and the absence of any clothing or jewellery at the site seems to suggest the young woman did not suffer a fatal accident. But the find also contradicts historical knowledge of common burial practices during the Iron Age, as most bodies were cremated.
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Tuesday, February 08, 2011

Battle: Los Angeles (2011)

For years, there have been documented cases of UFO sightings around the world -- Buenos Aires, Seoul, France, Germany, China. But in 2011, what were once just sightings will become a terrifying reality when Earth is attacked by unknown forces. As people everywhere watch the world's great cities fall, Los Angeles becomes the last stand for mankind in a battle no one expected. It's up to a Marine staff sergeant and his new platoon to draw a line in the sand as they take on an enemy unlike any they've ever encountered before.



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Friday, February 04, 2011

The Art of Close Encounters by Kim Carlsberg


For those who want to get a glimpse into the world of extra terrestrial contact, this book surely provides one of the best illustrations to date. It is filled with numerous drawings from contactees living all over the globe. It is helpful to those people who are learning about extra terrestrials. As the reader will see the different beings are as diverse as the life forms that exists on our own very planet Earth.
THE JERRY PIPPIN SHOW - Kim Carlsberg (1-12-2011)


Many contactees have spent numerous years in silence regarding their contact and the amazing places they have seen, the different dimensions they have walked in and the incredible teachings they have been students to. This art work is a way to express the extensive messages that exist in these encounters for public viewing.

Our controlled media has thrown images at us for years regarding what we as humans should look like, what we should idolize and how we should behave. This blogger can't help but think that for most Americans watching American Idol, Survivor and popular culture shows this is sure to be a massive switch in their psyche if they so choose to enter in. The world that truly exists right beyond our window and outside our door is far more interesting and teeming with life encompassing infinite possibilities. This book shows you what is, what can be and what is beyond.

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Wednesday, February 02, 2011

Google Art Project

Explore museums from around the world, discover and view hundreds of artworks at incredible zoom levels, and even create and share your own collection of masterpieces.
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Tuesday, February 01, 2011

UFO - Dome of the rock - Temple mount - Jerusalem 28.01.2011


This morning around 01:00 AM at the promenade of Armon Hantziv in Jerusalm, i was witness(with another guy), an amazing ufo aircraft over Jerusalem old city (mount Moriah) Dome of the Rock,Temple Mount,قبة الصخرة, הר הבית.
What is the meaning of this sighting ?????????
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