Saturday, August 06, 2016

Black holes may be 'back doors' to other parts of the universe, researchers claim

  • Researchers say there could be a wormhole at the center of black holes
  • Any matter passing through would be stretched to extremes to enter
  • It would be returned to normal size upon exiting in a different region
  • This goes against idea that matter sucked into black hole is lost forever

Deep inside of a black hole lies a region known as the gravitational singularity, where space-time curves toward infinity, and no matter passing through can survive – or so it’s been thought.In a new study, researchers suggest there may instead be a way out through a wormhole at the center of the black hole, which acts as a ‘back door.’By this theory, anything traveling through the black hole would be ‘spaghettified,’ or stretched to the extreme, but returned back to its normal size when it emerges in a different region of the universe.

In the new theory, anything traveling through the black hole would be ‘spaghettified,’ or stretched to the extreme, but returned back to its normal size when it emerges in a different region of the universe. An artist's impression of a wormhole is pictured
Physicists from the Institute of Corpuscular Physics in Valencia propose a new scenario that considers the singularity as an imperfection in the geometric structure of space-time.To test this idea, the researchers took uncommon approach, using geometric structures similar to those of a crystal of graphene layer, which better match the activity inside of a black hole.

For the study, published in the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity, the team focused on a type of black hole which is motionless and electrically-charged.
‘Black holes are a theoretical laboratory for trying out new ideas about gravity,’ says Gonzalo Olmo, a Ramón y Cajal researcher at the University of Valencia.
‘Just as crystals have imperfections in their microscopic structure, the central region of a black hole can be interpreted as an anomaly in space-time, which requires new geometric elements in order to be able to describe them more precisely.
‘We explored all possible options, taking inspiration from facts observed in nature.’
 In a new study, researchers suggest there may instead be a way out through a wormhole at the centre of the black hole, which acts as a ¿back door.¿ An illustration of a black hole is pictured
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 In a new study, researchers suggest there may instead be a way out through a wormhole at the centre of the black hole, which acts as a ‘back door.’ An illustration of a black hole is pictured
By analyzing the new geometries, the researchers found a center point with a small, spherical surface, representing a wormhole at the heart of a black hole.
‘Our theory naturally resolves several problems in the interpretation of electrically-charged black holes,’ Olmo explains.

WHAT IS SPAGHETTIFICATION?

If you stray too close to a black hole, then you will stretch out, just like spaghetti, due to a gravitation gradient across your body.
Imagine that you are headed feet first towards a black hole.
Since your feet are physically closer to the black hole, they will feel a stronger gravitation pull towards it than your head will.
You arms, by virtue of the fact that they're not at the centre of your body, will be attracted in a slightly different direction than your head is.
This will cause parts of the body toward the edges to be brought inwards.
The net result is not only an elongation of the body overall, but also a thinning out in the middle.
Hence, your body or any other object, such as Earth, will start to resemble spaghetti long before it hits the centre of the black hole.
‘In the first instance, we resolve the problem of the singularity, since there is a door at the centre of the black hole, the wormhole, through which space and time can continue.’
The equations revealed that a wormhole at the centre would be smaller than an atomic nucleus, but increases in size relative to the charge stored within the black hole.
Researchers say the matter inside the black hole would not be lost forever as it¿s previously been thought, and would instead be expelled into another area of the universe.

Researchers say the matter inside the black hole would not be lost forever as it’s previously been thought, and would instead be expelled into another area of the universe.
If any matter were passing through, it would be stretched to extreme measures, allowing it to enter the wormhole.
Then, it would be compacted as it comes out on the other side.
While it’s unlikely that a human would survive this process, the researchers say the matter inside the black hole would not be lost forever as it’s previously been thought, and would instead be expelled into another area of the universe.
And, the researchers say there would be no need for ‘exotic’ energy to generate the wormhole, as Einstein’s theory of gravity suggests.
‘In our theory,’ the researcher explained, ‘the wormhole appears out of ordinary matter and energy, such as an electric field.’ 

WHAT IS A WORMHOLE? 

Space-time can be warped and distorted. It takes an enormous amount of matter or energy to create such distortions, but theoretically, distortions are possible.
In the case of the wormhole, a shortcut is made by warping the fabric of space-time. Imagine folding a piece of paper with two pencil marks drawn on it to represent two points in space-time.
The line between them shows the distance from one point to the other in normal space-time.
If the paper is now bent and folded over almost double - the equivalent to warping space-time - then poking the pencil through the paper provides a much shorter way of linking the two points, in the same way a wormhole would create a shortcut.

The problem with using wormholes to travel in space or time is that they are inherently unstable. When a particle enters a wormhole, it also creates fluctuations that cause the structure to collapse in on it.

Scientists Are Now Even More Confused By Potential "Alien Superstructure"








Scientists Are Now Even More Confused By Potential "Alien Superstructure"

After observing Tabby's Star for four years, results only provoke more questions.








Within our own galaxy, some astronomers believe there may be a massive piece of alien technology, built to harvest energy from a distant star. The star, KIC 8462852, also known as Tabby's Star, exhibits strange behavior, flickering and dimming, that can't be explained by any known astronomical phenomena. A new, unpublished study posted to arXiv, reports the results of studying images of the star from the Kepler Telescope over the past four years. The paper shows shocking results: the star's luminosity varied, sometimes dipping by 20% over the course of the study period. Even more perplexingly, its total luminosity, or flux, diminished by 4% overall over that time.
"The part that really surprised me was just how rapid and non-linear [the dimming] was," study author Ben Montet of Caltech told Gizmodo. "We spent a long time trying to convince ourselves this wasn't real. We just weren't able to."
Tabby's Star was first observed in the 19th century, providing scientists plenty of data to reference in their search for answers. Another researcher, Bradley Schaefer of Louisiana State University, published a study earlier this year claiming that the light output of the star has decreased by 19% in 100 years. His claims were highly disputed. Now, this data seems to back up the assertion that the star is dimming at an astonishingly rapid rate, even if Schaefer's data is not totally accurate.

One of the explanations for this phenomena, and the one that has received the most press, is the idea that the star could be flickering and dimming due to an "alien superstructure" that extraterrestrial beings are building around their star as a way, perhaps, to collect energy (these hypothetical structure are known as Dyson spheres). Though there's been no proof of this hypothesis, it also can't be ruled out. The other theories, including that the star is blocked by the debris of a smashed planet, or what's known as "gravity darkening," would go towards explaining parts of the phenomenon, but no current theory could explain it entirely.
"The new paper states, and I agree, that we don't have any really good models for this sort of behavior," Jason Wright, the Penn State astronomer who first suggested the alien superstructure theory said. "That's exciting!"

Scientists Are Now Even More Confused By Potential "Alien Superstructure"







Scientists Are Now Even More Confused By Potential "Alien Superstructure"

After observing Tabby's Star for four years, results only provoke more questions.







Within our own galaxy, some astronomers believe there may be a massive piece of alien technology, built to harvest energy from a distant star. The star, KIC 8462852, also known as Tabby's Star, exhibits strange behavior, flickering and dimming, that can't be explained by any known astronomical phenomena. A new, unpublished study posted to arXiv, reports the results of studying images of the star from the Kepler Telescope over the past four years. The paper shows shocking results: the star's luminosity varied, sometimes dipping by 20% over the course of the study period. Even more perplexingly, its total luminosity, or flux, diminished by 4% overall over that time.
"The part that really surprised me was just how rapid and non-linear [the dimming] was," study author Ben Montet of Caltech told Gizmodo. "We spent a long time trying to convince ourselves this wasn't real. We just weren't able to."
Tabby's Star was first observed in the 19th century, providing scientists plenty of data to reference in their search for answers. Another researcher, Bradley Schaefer of Louisiana State University, published a study earlier this year claiming that the light output of the star has decreased by 19% in 100 years. His claims were highly disputed. Now, this data seems to back up the assertion that the star is dimming at an astonishingly rapid rate, even if Schaefer's data is not totally accurate.

One of the explanations for this phenomena, and the one that has received the most press, is the idea that the star could be flickering and dimming due to an "alien superstructure" that extraterrestrial beings are building around their star as a way, perhaps, to collect energy (these hypothetical structure are known as Dyson spheres). Though there's been no proof of this hypothesis, it also can't be ruled out. The other theories, including that the star is blocked by the debris of a smashed planet, or what's known as "gravity darkening," would go towards explaining parts of the phenomenon, but no current theory could explain it entirely.
"The new paper states, and I agree, that we don't have any really good models for this sort of behavior," Jason Wright, the Penn State astronomer who first suggested the alien superstructure theory said. "That's exciting!"

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